Pollution in the process of green food production and processing methods and preventive measuresGreen food, is pollution-free, safe, high quality food collectively. Green food in China originated in the early 90 's, and its development is based on resources and environment on the basis of the sustainable use of, from improving agricultural ecological environment and realize the integration of prenatal, delivery and postnatal management, to improve the quality and added value of agricultural products. The development of green food will not only meet people's growing material needs, but also an important sign of agricultural modernization, is an important part of our agricultural products quality and safety certification system. In order to ensure pollution-free, safe and high quality for green food specific quality in green food production process, the requirements imposed on products "from land to table" process quality control, strictly limit the use of chemicals in the production process. Therefore, the main pollution factors analysis on green food production process and ways to develop appropriate control measures to ensure the quality of food products is particularly important. &Nbsp;
1 the definition and connotation of green food
green, refers to follow the principles of sustainable development, in accordance with the specific mode of production, designated by the specialized agencies, licensing of green food and pollution-free safe, high quality, nutritious food. Green food into AA level and a level 2, AA grade green food production in the prohibition of the use of any synthetic chemical substances, equivalent to organic foods. Allows limited qualifying a-class green food production of synthetic chemical substances.
2 the main pollution factors of green food production, pollution and control measures
in green of production process in the, pollution main from 4 a aspects: a is industrial waste pollution farmland, and water and atmosphere, makes green raw materials origin by pollution, to led to harmful material in crop in the gathered; II is with agricultural production in the chemical fertilizers, and chemical pesticide, chemical products using volume of increased, some harmful of chemical material through crop absorption residues in agricultural in the; three is food production, and Airborne bacteria during the processing of secondary pollution, hand bacteria the second cross infection, some chemicals, improper use of chemical additives, the harmful substances in food increases microbial contamination in four is caused by improper storage, processing. Among them, the first step is the production of crops cultivation of green food production, the pollution is the cause of this session key of the end product does not meet the Green standards.
2.1 the main pathways
in the process of the cultivation of crops, major sources of pollution are pesticides, heavy metals, nitrates, harmful micro-organisms. Pathways are:
① seeds: seed cleaning, disinfection, coating and other pollution caused by processing.
II fertilization dose: in the process of cultivation of crops, due to improper usage, type, usage, abuse of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides) and chemical fertilizers cause pollution.
③ irrigation: crop irrigation water contaminated by industrial waste water and domestic sewage, mainly heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium, copper and arsenic) and organic compounds such as benzene.
2.2 major pollution control measures
① selection of suitable habitats. Origin of ecological environmental conditions is one of the main factors influencing green food products. In the beginning of the development of green food products, environmental quality around the origin (including soil, water and air) conducted in-depth investigations, provide a scientific basis for the establishment of the green food producing area.
green food production should be selected in clean air, water quality, soil is not contaminated, good agricultural ecological environmental quality of the area, trying to avoid the bustling cities, industrial areas and roads. Specific requirements are: no air pollution around the origin and origin, especially Tuyere must not have pollution sources, such as chemical plants, cement plants, dumping ground, mine waste dumps, there shall be no emission of toxic gases and smoke and dust. Water not containing pollutants, especially heavy metals and toxic and hazardous substances, to select the quality of surface water and groundwater clean and pollution-free area, away from easy to pollute the water plant mines. Demands on soil, soil background value should be in normal zone of origin, there was no metal or Nonmetal mines around, no pesticide residues in soil. Taking into account soil fertility index, select the area with higher soil organic matter content. For high natural background values of some elements in the soil (such as radioactive elements, heavy metals in high background areas), because such elements are available through plants accumulate and harm humans through the food chain, and therefore cannot be used as green food production base.
II choose resistance and resistance of crop varieties. Because of the green food standard and production for specific requirements, must limit the application of fertilizers and pesticides in the production. Therefore, the choice of crop varieties in both high yield and quality traits at the same time, should pay attention to selection of insect resistance, resistance and high luminous efficiency, to reduce or avoid the occurrence of pests and diseases, thereby reducing pesticide use and pollution. Introduction and also link variety characteristics and cultivation conditions, such as the enrichment of heavy metals in vegetables of many kinds have strong abilities in its production process generally use more pesticides and fertilizer. Add vegetable short growth cycle, in its products, pesticide residues and nitrate accumulation and pollution of heavy metals and other hazardous substances content, a greater threat to human health, such as the human body's intake of nitrate 80% from eating vegetables, must therefore be based on different vegetable varieties of heavy metal and nitrate enrichment capability, select the appropriate soil conditions for production. Such as spinach, cabbage to heavy metal accumulation ability of leaf vegetables should be chosen in districts with high fertility planting to reduce fertilizer inputs.
③ fertilization, applying less wary of the fertilizer. Requires organic fertilizer of green food production, minimize, or completely without chemical fertilizers. Is the nutrition of organic manure fertilizers, fertilizer not only long, but also can increase soil organic matter, enhance soil fertility. Organic fertilizers include manure, composting, composting, green manure, biogas fertilizer,. cake, crop residues such as farmyard manure, as well as humic acid fertilizer and microbial fertilizer. When the production and use of organic fertilizers, should pay attention to sound processing, such as high temperature, such as composting and methane fermentation full maturity can only be applied. In the production of green food, try to control and reduce chemical fertilizer, especially nitrogen fertilizer use, AA grade green food production in addition to using micronutrients and potassium outside, calcined phosphate, synthetic fertilizers is not allowed. A-class green food production, allowing limited use of chemical synthetic fertilizers, but prohibit the use of nitrate-nitrogen. Must be used when chemical fertilizers should be used with the proportion of organic fertilizer on nitrogen 1:1, last time prior to harvesting and 30D application.
black-promotion of integrated control of pests. In the production of green food and control is of great significance. "Control" is based on the agricultural ecology theory, from the overall situation of agricultural production and the integrated use of various preventive measures, create a suppress pests breeding and ecological environment conducive to natural enemies of crop growth and reproduction, and to maintain balance of agro-ecosystem.
comprehensive prevention and control measures are as follows:
agricultural practices. By choosing disease-resistant transgenic varieties, rational, reasonable layout, clean the field of crop rotation, intercropping, weeding, with roots in drying soil in a timely manner, can effectively reduce the occurrence of pests and diseases.
physics and artificial. Use of physical or mechanical, artificial measures to control diseases, pests, such as the artificial trap capture, lighting, color, mechanical weeding, hand weeding, and high-frequency, microwave, laser, etc.
biological control. Generally refers to the number of beneficial biological control of pests, which uses natural enemies to pest control methods.
medicament to control plant diseases and insect pests in green food production, should be chosen biological pesticides and mineral sources. When methods are insufficient to control diseases, pests, may make use of high efficiency, low toxicity and low-residue pesticides, to follow the pesticide producing green food in General using the relevant provisions of the guidelines. Prohibited the use of highly toxic, highly toxic, high residue or three-induced toxicity (carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic) pesticides, strictly in accordance with the requirements of the national standard control effect of dose and interval period.
3 main pathways of green food products processing and control measures
in the food processing process, from raw material to finished product, can generally be divided into raw materials and auxiliary materials, production and processing and the 3 main aspects of product packaging. Pollution of raw materials, the use of additives, inappropriate production, adverse health conditions contamination, mechanical equipment and materials may causing pollution to the final product. Therefore, for every aspect of the process and procedures, must be strictly controlled to prevent secondary pollution of the machining process.
3.1 the main pathways of green food products processing
3.1.1 material polluted green food processing of raw materials, including agricultural products, animal products, aquatic products and processed water, due to inappropriate production and storage and carrying harmful substances and pathogenic microorganisms or material itself or residues of pesticides and heavy metals enrichment, all contribute to the final product did not meet green standards. As food products during storage and transportation process because the mildew produces aflatoxin; juice using fruit juice of raw materials you have corruption, mold producing Patulin will make the fruit juice.
3.1.2 production enterprise environment and pollution of the plant production enterprises of site pollution source of environment around, such as the site is located in the area of residences, such as, may cause pollution to the production. Enterprise workshop layout, supply and exhaust system, health conditions, scientific and reasonable management system is an important factor of production from pollution.
secondary pollution control 3.1.3 hand bacteria according to specializing in food sterilization technology research and development of Shanghai Kang long environmental protection technology and equipment manufacturing Corporation research results show that sterilizing hands is a simple link can be ignored, neglected. Touching the outside of the bacteria, viruses and dirt more easily spotted, an unwashed pair of hands about 800,000 bacteria. Currently, most enterprise hand disinfection way exists defects, in used peroxide class disinfectant or containing chlorine class disinfectant soaking disinfection hand Department, originally needed continued soaking 3 minutes party up expected sterilization effect, but work Shi personnel concentrated, most only symbolic to total with a basin disinfectant dip about, disinfection time didn't guarantees, and more people repeat using, eventually led to disinfectant concentration enough instead into has sources, wash Hou using public towel wipe hand, pollution more serious, can be described as is one destroyed Yu nest. Recommends installation NCL-Q8 automatically induction hand disinfection device, as used 75% medical with alcohol as disinfection media process for: "induction to SOAP machine wash-taps flush-induction type drying-induction type hand disinfection"; used other disinfection liquid as disinfection media process for: "induction to SOAP machine wash--taps flush--induction type hand disinfection--induction type drying"; recommends select first species way, because alcohol volatile FLAC Department no any residues.
3.1.4 production process and equipment caused of pollution green products in processing process in the, must note process of continuity and rationality, if production process out or process Zhijian intermittent time had long, raw materials, and semi-finished products and finished long time exposed Yu air medium will to products increased pollution of opportunities; production equipment behind or not for process technology of requirements, up not to effective of temperature, and time,, or process technology not reasonable, Product contamination; such as the use of organic solvent extraction technology of vegetable oil, solvent residues or solvent containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and other toxic substances exceed health standards; process equipment using materials such as copper, lead, zinc, porcelain, acid, alkali, under high temperature and pressure for lead and arsenic contamination caused by the dissolution.
3.1.5 pollution caused by improper use of chemical additives in food additives to improve the food color, aroma, taste and appearance, nutritional value, as well as preservation and processing needs of chemical synthetic or natural substances added to food.
green food processing is mainly concerned about the safety of the additive. Additives preservatives, antioxidants, enzymes, nutrition enhancer, flavoring agent, hair color, and so on. Such as in the production of fans join the alum used as thickener and stabilizer, used in food processing, nitrite preservatives such as sodium benzoate, both because of its chronic toxicity or "induced by three (carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity) effects" and does not meet the requirement of green food standards.
3.1.6 products packaging improper caused of pollution in food packaging process in the due to packaging technology, and packaging material cannot meet processing process of requirements, as sterilization technology behind, and packaging barrier sex and sealed sex enough caused food in the of microbial exceeded, or packaging material in the containing toxic material, as packaging pattern of ink in the may contains of more chlorine joint benzene, easy was oil class of food absorption; ceramic container in the of lead, and Polyvinyl chloride such as vinyl chloride monomer in plastic packaging, will also cause pollution to food.
3.2 main pollution control measures of green food processing
processing of food products should use advanced science and technology, in order to maximize retained the natural quality, nutrition and original taste of food, and to avoid secondary pollution in the process.
3.2.1 raw materials, strict testing and strict management of green food production process raw materials first of all should have a food-grade quality, main raw materials must come from certified raw materials base of green food, materials such as salt, sugar and other fixed sources of supply, based on green food standards and issued by the authority for inspection reports. Process water as common in the processing of raw materials, must be tested and meet the health standard of drinking water in China. Magistrates or fresh clean, mildew-free, non-toxic substances (such as pesticides and heavy metals), high quality raw materials, especially fruit and vegetables, only the highest vitamin content in their fresh, nutritious flavor, so as to ensure the quality of the food. Food manufacturers should be strictly in accordance with the requirements of food plant design, scientific and reasonable choice of site, design workshop and warehouse facilities, strict production process management, avoiding environmental pollution to production and product processing of secondary pollution.
3.2.2 uses advanced processing technology and equipment food processing must be its own characteristics, using appropriate technologies, new technology and advanced equipment, improve the quality of food. Using advanced technology and equipment from 2 of the control of pollution: one is to ensure the continuity of the process. Production processing process of all process compact, and reasonable, can shortened processing cycle, avoid two times pollution and food nutrition components of loss; in cooling, and within packaging and the filling regional, procurement food dynamic disinfection equipment, this equipment on human harmless, can in people work of situation Xia synchronization killing air environment in the of bacteria, avoid two times pollution, Shanghai Kang long environmental technology limited is this equipment of only manufacturer. Second, strict control of production process parameters. Advanced technology are usually on the premise of maximum retention of food nutrients, set the science of processing time and process parameters such as pH, temperature, speed, help to reduce pollution, improve product quality and health level.
advanced technology that can be used in the green food processing include: biotechnology, such as enzyme engineering, fermentation engineering membrane separation technologies; freeze-drying technology; hand sterilization technology, vacuum technology and aseptic packaging technology of dynamic air disinfection technology; technology of supercritical extraction; low temperature concentration technique and so on. Such as the use of "dynamic disinfector NICOLER food", cooling, can be solved within the packaging and bottling shop bacterial secondary contamination problems. In fruit juice production by physical methods of sterilization and aseptic packaging reduces damage to the nutrients, and achieve the objective without preservatives, no pollution. With the development of science and technology, food processing computer control technology can be used to make processed foods have become so specialized, intensive, continuous and automated, to better control the production process, reduce pollution. But advanced technologies must comply with the principles of food processing, such as green genetic engineering is strictly prohibited, and no radiation and microwave methods for processing.
3.2.3 use of food additives the use of additives in food processing technology, is a key products can meet the Green standards.
green food processing, generally in line with national standards, such as enzymes, nutrition enhancer, preservative, antioxidant, coloring and flavoring, the requirements are very stringent. If processing in the must using additives of, must strictly according to green food additives using guidelines selected right of type and the dosage, AA level green in production in the ban using any chemical synthesis food additives, a, level green in production in the only allows limited using qualified of chemical synthesis food additives, maximum allows using volume for general food in the maximum using volume of 60%, because in GB2760-1996 standard in the food additives of maximum using volume, is no side effects of ceiling, As long as the work can be in the actual production, and therefore, the a-class green food Chemical additive in a large proportion of the maximum usage of lower reflected green food security.BACK PAGE